Patents are assets, they are “intellectual properties,” and “rights,” and they are classed as being valuable. Since patents are not tangible, in accounting, they are often referred to as “intangible assets.”
The essence of patent management is no different from a tangible asset such as a car. One wouldn’t typically invest in a car after buying it, but would, however, pay a maintenance fee (of sorts.)
You will only maintain a patent after it has been granted (when you have the rights.) Patent management is a continuous investment process if, and only if, asset management is a continuous investment process.
For practicing entities, innovation (R&D,) asset management should be a continuous investment process (because it is at the core of the business.) Patent management simply transforms part of the innovation output into intangible assets and maintains them.
When it comes to managing the respective patent(s), again, it is like the car or any other tangible assets. However, the difference is that the quality and value of such intangible assets are unstable (unlike a tangible asset such as a car.)
The shaping of patent assets is similar to the idea of industry 4.0, the prosecution of a patent is just like the manufacture of a car.
So, in theory, the shaping of patent assets supported by the continuous accumulation of big data is similar to the idea of industry 4.0, which also supports the manufacture of products utilizing the accumulation of big data.